The Citadel of Saladin is considered one of the extensive and important works of military architecture of the middle ages. It is Situated near to the Muqattam Hills. The Citadel was fortified by Salah al-Din Al-Ayyubi (Saladin) one of the Ayyubid rulers between 1176 and 1183 AD, to protect it from the Crusaders.
For nearly seven centuries (1206-1874 AD), it was the executive manison for the Ayyubids, Mamluks, Ottomans, and the Muhammad ‘Ali Family from 1798 but finally Khedive Ismail moved into Abdin Palace in a new construction Downtown Cairo in the 1870’s.
There were many great changes happened since it was first built. It has been extended and renovated by many rulers. In the first half of the 19th century, The Citadel was completely remodeled by Moahmed Ali Pasha. when he ruined the few lasting structures that date to the Mamluk period and reestablished most of its walls.
Moahmed Ali also constructed one of Cairo’s most overwhelming monuments. His Mosque was built between 1828 and 1848 AD and made out of Alabaster , perched on the summit of the citadel. The mosque was built to commemorate Tusun Pasha, Muhammad Ali’s second son who died in 1816.
Besides this mosque, The Citadel includes the Mosque of Sultan Al-Nasir Muhammad which was built in the 14th century, the Mosque of Sulayman Pasha erected in the Ottoman Style during the 16th century, Gawhara Palace and different museums such as the Police Museum and the Military Museum.
Along with all these stunning monuments, the citadel also offers an astounding view over Cairo.